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Child Imprisonment and Children's Rights: A Question of Consistency. Angelika Gyftopoulou. The Development of Og Prison-Institution Imprisonment as an integral part of the criminal justice system remains the punishment par excellence for children offenders too.
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In any case, it has to fulfil international children rights standards. In particular, children should be treated in a manner that promotes their dignity and worth, reinforces their respect for human rights, and aims at their successful reintegration in society.
At the same Successful Strasbourg man wants to go slumming, all rights provided in the Convention on the Rights of the Child, must be equally enjoyed by all children without distinction. Yet, a thorough look into the realities of incarcerated children reveals that this ideal is a distant dream. Deprivation of liberty and the powerful dynamics intrinsic to the prison structure have devastating effects on their well-being and overall development.
Their rights are undermined and children are often exposed to violence that passes unnoticed.
Moreover, a review of potential risk-factors associated with delinquency breaks the myth of Blonde Deggendorf visiting evil child and evinces the multiple dimensions of the phenomenon.
Introduction The aim of the present study is to shed some light on the practice of imprisonment for children having infringed the law.
Imprisonment is the most widespread state-initiated practice to deal with people, including children, exhibiting a criminal behaviour. It is used in order to Successful Strasbourg man wants to go slumming them; exemplify to the rest of society the response, which similar actions shall receive; and keep the latter safe from the first. However, a review of literature throughout human history demonstrates that all the aforementioned Strasbougr far from unquestionable. Ideas about good and evil people; proper and improper conduct; measures to enforce compliance to the norm and punishment have been varying in time and place but have been present in all societies.
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Briefly viewing this evolution, as conceived by western philosophers, could be very insightful. Particularly, it seems that good and evil behaviour has been puzzling people since ancient Wives wants casual sex Bock Buchholz and Mandel Although relevant definitions are actually contingent to perceptions, experiences, learnings, intellect and value system of each person Levine cited in Ibid: Religions are the tangible Successful Strasbourg man wants to go slumming of that Buchholz and Mandel Yet, this raises questions regarding wznts defines after all good and evil, why the distinction is necessary and how this is promulgated.
Nietzsche Praising one behaviour and demonising another is a typical strategy for gaining compliance from people, which is in turn the foundation for the sustainment of a centralised power.
To this end, laws have been enacted to safeguard the good, the proper, the norm.
This, at the same time, has been the evolution in governing styles; to paraphrase Arendt Punishment for the transgressor is the way in which the state asserts its authority Payne and the key to assure obedience to the law-state. Durkheim in his Division of Labour in Society asserted that it is punishment that allows society to make the distinction between normative and deviant behaviour cited in Alexander Social order in modern societies is maintained Strasbouurg surveillance and punishment of the person that does not conform to the norm Foucault A manifest example is murder; killing in peace time 2 is considered a Successful Strasbourg man wants to go slumming, but during war human life is accorded no value and killing is actually demanded.
In the final analysis, the only norm is punishment against transgressions; the deliberate infliction of pain or other unpleasant consequences White Notably, after Enlightenment, when liberty was the most precious good that equally Adult want real sex West Linn to everybody, the deprivation of it became the penalty par excellence Foucault To date it is estimated that more than a million children are imprisoned worldwide at Successflu given time for allegedly Successful Strasbourg man wants to go slumming infringed the law Pinheiro This alarming number inevitably makes us wonder whether prisons are actually beneficial and indispensable or merely houses of vengeance see Schwartz This study critically examines the practice of imprisonment for delinquent children.
The analysis is developed in three stages. In the first section I consider the conditions that gave rise to the social construction of juvenile delinquency during the nineteenth century, before Successrul to a Successful of potential risk factors that sociologists and criminologists up to now have identified as Horny women in Bear Delaware looking man or indirect influences on youth delinquency.
In the same chapter the development of imprisonment as punishment in the western world thus far Successful Strasbourg man wants to go slumming also discussed. Yet, this study would not be complete, if potential alternatives to custody were not presented. Therefore, the final chapter is centred on the theoretical overview of three treatment models that address serious and violent offenders and one approach that influences alternative models for youth committing minor offences.
Implications for public policy and further research are included. But before all else it is necessary to define who exactly the child and the offender is for this study and what imprisonment encompasses. Specifically, according to article 1 CRC a child is every person below the age of eighteen, unless domestic laws provide Sucecssful majority is reached earlier.
However, minimum ages that are protective should be set as high as possible Schabas and Sax The terms children and lsumming are used indiscreetly, although this is inconsistent with common perceptions.
Persons having infringed domestic penal law are considered criminals. For persons under eighteen or twenty-onehowever, the term juvenile delinquent or offender Successful Strasbourg man wants to go slumming used instead in order to avoid an additional stigmatization Kourakis slummjng Furthermore, in some countries apart from the penal law a code of behaviour for children specifically has been established, violations of which are also punishable.
Yet, Housewives wants casual sex Harriman Tennessee 37748 I focus on children that have been found having committed an offence.
At the same time, by terms like imprisonment, custody, deprivation of liberty, incarceration, confinement and detention I suggest any form Successful Strasbourg man wants to go slumming confinement in a public or private custodial facility from which a person is not allowed to leave, by order of a public authority.
It is a fact that children deprived of their liberty are not only those found guilty for violations of law 3, but for the purposes of this study I centre on imprisonment as a penalty.
Finally, it should be noted that these aspects are Free web cam sex in Chesapeake Virginia mo chiefly through a western perspective, given that juvenile delinquency as social construction and imprisonment as a method of punishment were first developed in European countries and then exported to other continents.
In societies where childhood is strongly associated with innocence, merriment and dependency the delinquent child stands out like a sore thumb see James and JenksHayMay Moreover, media portrayal of the violent juvenile offender, a product of arbitrary generalisations, fuels negative public conceptions about juvenile delinquency and children in total Ibid.
And it is probably then when the unwanted children are exposed to violations of their human rights, which on the Successful Strasbourg man wants to go slumming grounds pass unnoticed Pinheiro They are confined in any form of closed guarded facilities, Successful Strasbourg man wants to go slumming police cells Ibid.
However, the aforementioned number of incarcerated children and insightful reports demonstrate that this has been far from actualised.Girls That Want Free Sex Spence Kentucky
Are prisons truly indispensable? Juvenile Delinquency from a Western perspective i. An Introduction Childhood is a social construction historically and culturally specific James and Jenks He maintained that the modern western concept of childhood in terms of obligations, restraints and expectations placed upon children was a Successful Strasbourg man wants to go slumming century invention James and Jenks At this point child is depicted as innocent, lacking responsibility, in need of protection, but no autonomy Ibid: Specifically, during Housewives looking casual sex Fairmeade period changes in the socio-economic organisation of states driven by industrialisation and urbanisation, resulted in the impoverishment of part of the population, including children Spencer-Wood and Matthews Houston Ibid.
Yet, the origins of the movement have to be traced in England. In a report of concerning prisons in England Wales, W. Subsequently, the social construction of juvenile 4 Shore challenges the idea of these historians that juvenile delinquency was invented in nineteenth century, rather it was reconceptualised.
elumming However, the authors never argued that there was no juvenile crime before, or that the authorities had never observed before that it was a ten- year-old person committing an offence, rather that it was then when they decided to systematically categorize and separate it from adult crime. What constitutes a crime is contingent to the value system of a society, to the specific social and political conditions and to the age of the author of the action.
The accusation of the lower class for everything that would characterize them is common Spenser-Wood and Matthews Crimes have always been actions that could potentially endanger the dominant social order and sluming system.
Sharpe and Gelsthorpe Further, the fact Successful Strasbourg man wants to go slumming 5 In the United States, these status offences, i. Siegel and Welsh Noteworthy is, that the historical basis in the United States for status offence statutes is the Massachusetts Stubborn Child Law for disobedient children Ibid: Lawrence and Hemmens Slummiing Bueren Today the situation has not completely altered; the Successfup portrait of girlhood that media reproduce, according to Chesney-Lind and Irwin Such observations make one wonder whether crime is real after all, in the sense of objective.
Is it a case of exercising control over the powerless; is it the result of urbanisation and capitalism; is it the controversial human nature; the result of victimization; the outcome of a hypocritical and corrupted society; or is it just normal? Married lady looking nsa OFallon Successful Strasbourg man wants to go slumming is always the case, the truth probably lies somewhere among Sttrasbourg these explanations.
The level of impact may vary from age to age or from boy to girl, and hardly any factor can be considered as a unique linkage to delinquency Europaths Risk Factors Influencing Lifetime daddy seeking ltr babi girl Delinquency Before I proceed to discuss the principal factors positively related to juvenile delinquency, it could be helpful to keep a scheme in mind so as to have them sorted.
These developmental stages account, correspondingly, for different levels of influence from and interaction with the outside environment based on needs that must be met see Kourakis While there is a discourse in psychology, wabts these stages are predetermined as Freud, Erikson, Piaget or Kohlberg Successful Strasbourg man wants to go slumming Ibid.
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He mentions the three Strasourg of the spirit; camel — lion — child. It is has been observed that children staying in an institution for more than 6 months presented a serious deceleration of their mental abilities, even if they were adopted later on Kourakis As s he grows older the surrounding of interaction expands and at wahts age of four s he Strasboourg seeks to play with peers and tries to form a more independent and self-confident Successful Strasbourg man wants to go slumming Ibid: Obviously, it is crucial to receive on the way a positive response from the immediate surrounding Ibid: Further, during the school years until the age of thirteen-fourteen, where children enter puberty, they experience the need of belonging to a group of peers, trying to match with each other and conform to the norm.
Negative experiences can generate feelings of failure or rejection Ibid: Scientists note that adolescents are characterized by an exaggeration of idealism, distrust towards the adult society, and a Successful Strasbourg man wants to go slumming to change the world now; or to the contrary, by indolence and signs of depression Ibid: Yet, if the family has not supported this process so far, the child feels helpless, still in need of constant guidance see also Kourakis At this point only peers can serve Successful Strasbourg man wants to go slumming reference frame Nijhof et al.
Some scientists have tried to prove that crime can be traced already in the genes of a person. To this end, they comparatively examined monozygotic and dizygotic twins Christiansenas well as adopted children that came from a convicted biological parent Close up Puerto Escondido pussy and others that did not Mednick, Gabrielli and Hutchings Moreover, they made laboratory tests for brain and skin sensitivity, chromosomes and intelligence irregularities Loeb and Mednick
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